Much is being said about COP21. The climate summit that will take place in Paris between December 30 and 11 is generating great expectations along with great hopes, although always tinged with skepticism caused by the great disappointment caused by the Copenhagen summit in 2009. What will the success of this event depend on? We summarize the key points:

  • Binding INDCs: countries have sent the UNFCCC their INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions), or voluntary contributions. These must become binding.
  • Funding: $100 billion starting in 2020 to help developing countries adapt to climate change and mitigate their emissions. This funding must be additional to current direct development aid.
  • 2ºC: A clear and ambitious commitment to keep the temperature rise below two degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level, for which it is necessary to increase the current level of ambition (with the current INDCs, would increase 2.7ºC).
  • Balance between rich and poor : an extension of the principle of shared but differentiated responsibilities. Equity is necessary, whereby the countries most responsible for the problem provide help to those less responsible (which are usually also the most vulnerable), in the form of financial aid and technology transfer.
  • Compliance: it is necessary to ensure that the commitments are fulfilled, putting in place an ambitious and transversal system of transparency and accountability, and an effective system of monitoring, review and verification. li>
  • A clear signal to society: the new agreement must demonstrate commitment to society, and catalyze a change in the development model and consumption patterns.