The 2019 Report of the COTEC Foundation highlights that Spain has lost its way in innovation compared to Europe, with Spain, Finland and Portugal being the only states that have not recovered the levels of investment in R&D prior to the crisis. At the same time, the increase in investment in R&D in Europe (22% between 2009 and 2017) pales before the Chinese takeoff (99% increase between 2009 and 2015) .

According to OECD data, Spain stands out among developed countries for less support from the private sector for R&D.